The stories of Sherlock Holmes take place when Western civilization was at its apex.
Whites were not afraid of anyone. Not even Jews.
The most faithful filmatization of the Sherlock stories was the Granada Television series starring Jeremy Brett.
“He is in the hands of the Jews. He’s holding off the Jews till then.”
Of course, Sherlock is speaking about moneylenders. These words do not appear in the Granada television episode. However, they do present the Jew as an unpleasant and quite aggressive fellow.
So besides the two sentences they did not alter anything else. But this changes the meaning of the story because it makes it more difficult for the viewer to understand why Sherlock let the debtor off the hook even if he clearly had broken the law.
Doyle wanted to emphasize that the debtor was a gentleman while the moneylender was a Jew.
The whole episode can be seen on Youtube.