On the 14th July 1683, an Ottoman army under the command of the Grand Vizier Kara Mustafa Pasha arrived at the Gates of Vienna. Their arrival marked the beginning of a siege characterized by subterranean warfare, delays on both sides, and an “apocalyptic storm” of Tatar riders ravaging the hinterland.
The siege was eventually ended by the battle of Vienna, when the Polish winged Hussars arrived under King Jan III Sobieski famously charged into the Ottoman army.
The siege and battle of Vienna are discussed extensively by historians up to this day. It is considered the turning point in the westward expansion of the Ottomans and it is an interesting case study for any student of warfare.